How Do You Build A Dinosaur?

Thursday, September 22, 2011

Complete skeleton of Tyrannosaurus rex ever found, so how can we know what appeared?

In 1854, exposure to the world of dinosaurs has opened in the Crystal Palace, south London. But in the 19th century the show had lost its credibility, scientific discoveries replaced these first impressions of the dinosaurs.

Now, scientists in the world of dinosaurs in an innovative work leading exhibition in Los Angeles, California, which claims to be an accurate representation of most scientifically the dinosaurs so far.

Luis Chiappe, director of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles, says they aim to show how "we translate the evidence we find in the field of scientific knowledge."

The centerpiece of the exhibition will be a "growth-series" of three skeletons T. rex, and it will also be a model of T. rex baby.

Get both models and skeletons in their own right, a huge amount of science goes to every collection.

The starting point of paleontologists is that the fossilized bones discovered during excavations around the world, but there is always new excavations provide new information.

Darren Naish, a paleontologist at the University is based in Portsmouth, is looking for new dinosaur museum in the back.

"I do not necessarily have to go out there and find the dinosaurs, just poke around in the drawers of museums and is something new," he said.

He and a colleague recently discovered a new species hidden in storage, and says there is a large number of samples that could become new discoveries.

"We are the gold discovery of a dinosaur, there are about 50 new species of dinosaurs called every year," he said, adding that "about 90% of all the dinosaurs are named after the name around 1990".

The next step is to understand what fossils are discovered. It can take years to clean up the sediment from the whole skeleton.

When the skeleton is ready, it must be reconstituted and hung true.

Zawisha Paul is responsible for creating tailor-made steel frame for T. rex, which is strong enough to support the enormous weight of fossils.

He said: "Most of the bones are real, making them extremely heavy.

"We estimate the total weight of bone is a little more than a ton.

"The femur is probably a good 200-250 lbs (90 to 115 kg) each, we need to set up special devices rigging.

"God forbid that one of them fell, because it would take some 'time to get them back together."

Paul is responsible for collecting the head T. Rex in the show - known as "Thomas".

Work entrepreneur skeletons of T. Rex in Los Angeles is a reconstruction of the skeleton of a number of contractors in months

Thomas is one of the best samples T. rex found, but is still only 70%. His lack of bone will be led by Paul team, based on those who belong to more than 30 others partially T. rex, were found.

The steel frame is a work of art itself, inch perfect and subtle enough to not distract from the dinosaurs.

Because a dinosaur is suspended, while the real science, both in terms of artistic interpretation, in order to bring the exhibition to life really.

"We could change the fingers a little to give this a sneaky feeling or a sense of pause. But it is very, very subtle," says Paul.

"You could just move a toe one inch in one direction, and that changes how you see it all," he said.

Most experts now believe that although many dinosaurs died out 65 million years, some have survived and evolved into modern birds.

"What does it mean that since the dinosaurs are the descendants of the dinosaurs are not extinct, are not extinct at the end of the Mesozoic," says Luis.

"You know the 10 000 species of birds that will provide you with a wealth of information that can be used to understand biology."

One of the world's leading experts on the movement of the dinosaurs is Dr. John Hutchinson heard of Luis T. Rex to ensure reflect the latest theories on the muscles and physiology.

By comparing the anatomy of birds of the anatomy of dinosaurs, the estimated size of the muscles of extinct animals, and loads it into computer models, Dr. able to get an overview of how dinosaurs really moved Hutchinson.

Dr Hutchinson said: "We found the use of computer models of human sprinter, who can do 25 mph (40 km / h), or slightly faster than it would probably be very well matched and well muscled Tyrannosaurus.

"The average person can run about 15 miles per hour, would probably be a pretty good game for a poor version of a T. rex."

Also built for the exhibition for the first time a model of a small chicken-sized dinosaur called Fruitadens, the smallest dinosaur found in North America.

Painting Mon Fruitadens The researchers did not initially know what the color of the model should be Fruitadens

Fossils and imaging allows researchers to faithfully reproduce, but the mystery remains: its color.

How do we know what color the dinosaurs look like?

Doyle, Trankina, one of the artists who work on the model Fruitadens Luis says: "If you push things too far, do not go to points, purple and pink, the public simply does not believe it.

"If you pull the examples of live animals, you can actually earn a lot just by watching the crocodile skin color, maybe a few lizards and fish, but will remain credible."

But there is another way. Professor Mike Benton recently came across the remains of dinosaurs that were so wonderfully well-preserved feathers and bones were fossilized.

When scanning electron microscopy, which increases the objects 9000 times, the secrets of their pigment can be unlocked.

By comparing the structure of feathers to life, the colors have been identified - ginger, black, dark brown or gray.

It was found that has helped scientists create more accurate representations of the dinosaurs.

"Who would have thought a dinosaur is close to the bird? But we are. You know it's a sort of witness the skeletons, and now, if you will, testified anatomy of feathers," says Professor Benton.

Paleontology is an evolving field where new discoveries are changing the game all the time.

And it is a burden Luis is aware ". It is our responsibility to ensure that people understand that things are not written in stone, and the scientific conclusions change as we gather more evidence"

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