Cave Prehistoric Art Created By Children

Monday, October 3, 2011

We all think we know what they look like dinosaurs, but nobody has actually seen. But recent paleontological discoveries in saying that scientists can now create the most accurate reproductions ever seen.

A complete skeleton of Tyrannosaurus Rex has never been found, so how do we know what he looked like?

In 1854, exposure to the world of dinosaurs has opened in the Crystal Palace, south London. But in the 19th century the show had lost its credibility, scientific discoveries replaced these first impressions of the dinosaurs.

Now, the world's leading scientists working on innovative dinosaur exhibition in Los Angeles, California, which strives to be a scientifically accurate representation of the dinosaurs so far.

Luis Chiappe Director of the Museum of Natural History in Los Angeles, says that the purpose of showing how "the evidence we'll be shooting in the field as part of scientific knowledge."

The centerpiece of the exhibition will be a "growth-series" of three skeletons T. rex, and it will also be a model of T. rex baby.

For both models and skeletons just right, a huge amount of science goes into each piece.

The starting point of paleontologists is that the fossilized bones discovered during excavations around the world, but there is always new excavations provide new information.

Darren Naish, a paleontologist at the University is based in Portsmouth, is looking for new dinosaur museum in the back.

"They do not necessarily need to go to the field and look for dinosaurs, you can simply rummage through the drawers and the museum is something new," he says.

He and a colleague recently discovered a new species hidden in storage, and says there is a large number of samples that could become new discoveries.

"We're in a golden age of discovery of dinosaurs, there are about 50 new species of dinosaur named each year," he said, adding that "about 90% of all dinosaur named have been appointed since about 1990" .

The next step is to determine exactly what the fossils are. It can take years to clean sediment from a complete skeleton.

When the skeleton is ready, it must be reconstituted and hung true.

Zawisha Paul is responsible for creating a custom steel frame for T. rex, which must be strong enough to support the enormous weight of fossils.

He said: "Most of the bones are real, making them extremely heavy.

"We estimate the total weight of bone is a little more than a ton.

"The femur is probably a good 250 pounds from 200 (90-115 kg) each, we have to put up with special gear.

"God forbid one of them falls, because it would take a little time to get this back together."

Paul is responsible for assembling the exhibition leads to T. Rex - that is, "Thomas".

Contractor working in T. rex skeletons in the reconstruction of a skeleton takes several months for employers

Thomas is one of the finest specimens of T. rex was found, but it's still only 70% of the total. His bones are missing is Paul's team, which is based on more than 30 others belonging to the partial T. Rex, which has been found.

The steel frame is a work of art in itself, a perfect mm, and thin enough not to distract attention from a dinosaur.

The position where the dinosaur is hung while being true to science will also involve a degree of artistic interpretation, to really bring the exhibition to life.

"We could change the fingers a little to give this a sneaky feeling or a sense of pause. But it is very, very subtle," says Paul.

"You can move a finger is only an inch in one direction, and that changes to imagine how it all," he says.

Most experts now believe that dinosaurs became extinct 65 million years, some have survived and evolved into modern birds.

"What does it mean that since the dinosaurs are the descendants of the dinosaurs are not extinct, are not extinct at the end of the Mesozoic," says Luis.

"You know you have 10 000 living species of birds that will provide a wealth of information that can be used to understand biology."

One of the world's leading experts on the movement of dinosaurs, Dr. John Hutchinson, to ensure consultation Luis T. Rex reflect the latest thinking and physiology of muscles.

By comparing the bird with the anatomy of a dinosaur anatomy of extinct animals and assess muscle size, and enter the computer models, Dr. Hutchinson is the ability to obtain information on how dinosaurs really moved.

Dr. Hutchinson said: "We have found using our computer models sprinter man can do 25 mph (40 km / h) or a little faster, probably would be quite appropriate for a muscle Tyrannosaurus.

"The average person can run about 15 miles per hour, would probably be a pretty good game for a poor version of a T. rex."

He also built for the exhibition for the first time is a model of a small chicken-sized dinosaurs called Fruitadens, the smallest dinosaur found in North America.

Man painting Fruitadens scientists initially not knowing what color the model must be Fruitadens

Fossils and imaging have allowed researchers to reproduce it faithfully, but one mystery remains: its color.

How do we know what should be the color of the dinosaurs?

Doyle Tran China, one of the artists Luis has worked on the model Fruitadens, said: "If you push things too far, you go to peas, purple and pink, your audience will simply not believe it.

"If you pull the examples of live animals, you can actually earn a lot just by watching the crocodile skin color, maybe a few lizards and fish, but will remain credible."

But there is another way. Professor Mike Benton recently found the remains of a dinosaur that was so perfectly preserved as the feathers and fossilized bones.

When scanning electron microscope that magnifies objects 9000 times, the secrets of their pigmentation have been released.

Comparing the structure of the life of feathers, the colors can be identified - ginger, black, dark brown or gray.

It is a finding that helped researchers create more accurate depictions of dinosaurs.

"Who on earth would have believed a dinosaur is close to a bird? But we are here. You know it's the kind of evidence in the skeletons, and now if you like, shown in the anatomy of birds," said Professor Benton.

Paleontology is an evolving field where new discoveries are changing the game all the time.

Luis is a burden and is well aware: "Our duty is to ensure that people understand that things are not written in stone, and our scientific conclusions are changing, we collect more evidence."

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